Thu 8th October
08:30 - 09:00
Production 2030 - Strengthening Innovation in Production
Cecilia Warrol - Program director, Strategic Innovation Programme Production 2030
09:10 - 10:00
Edge - Our Journey Toward Perfect Production
Anders Wiberg - Director Manufacturing Edge Factory, Husqvarna AB
10:00 - 10:30
10:30 - 11:45
Workshop: Building knowledge together in product and production development research
Moderators: Boel Wadman, Produktionskluster (The Swedish Manufacturing R&D Clusters) Cecilia Warrol, Produktion2030 Sabina Rebeggiani, Produktion2030 Graduate School Anna Öhrwall Rönnböck, LTU & Tero Stjernstoft, Vinnova
10:30 - 11:45
Paper session stream I
Special session S3 - Supply chain relocation
Chair: Anders Adlemo, JTH
10:30 - 10:55 Semi-automatic Generation of a Fuzzy Inference System in a Reshoring Context
Adlemo et al., JTH
Reshoring can be regarded as offshoring in reverse. While offshoring mainly has been driven by cost aspects, reshoring considers multiple aspects, such as higher quality demands, faster product delivery and product mass-customization. Where to locate manufacturing is usually a purely manual activity that relies on relocation experts, hence, an automated decision-support system would be extremely useful. This paper presents a decision-support system for reshoring decision-making building a fuzzy inference system. The construction and functionality of the fuzzy inference system is briefly outlined and evaluated within a high-cost environment considering six specific reshoring decision criteria, namely cost, quality, time, flexibility, innovation and sustainability. A challenge in fuzzy logic relates to the construction of the so called fuzzy inference rules. In the relocation domain, fuzzy inference rules represent the knowledge and competence of relocation experts and are usually generated manually by the same experts. This paper presents a solution where fuzzy inference rules are automatically generated applying one hundred reshoring scenarios as input data. Another important aspect in fuzzy logic relates to the membership functions. These are mostly manually defined but, in this paper, a semi-automatic approach is presented. The reshoring decision recommendations produced by the semi-automatically configured fuzzy inference system are shown to be as accurate as those of a manually configured fuzzy inference system.
10:55 - 11:20 Criteria Considered in a Manufacturing Reshoring Decision - a Multiple Case Study
Sequeirea et al., JTH
The manufacturing reshoring phenomenon has received more attention in the academic and business literature in recent years. Due to the newness of the phenomenon, there is a lack of knowledge about how these decisions were made. This research provides a theoretical framework by reviewing literature on possible criteria that are considered in a manufacturing reshoring decision. The criteria are categorized into six categories including competitive priority, resource, strategy, context, preference and global condition. A multiple case study methodology is used to identify the criteria and compare them with the theoretical framework. The findings indicate that total cost is the most common criteria considered and each case company has followed its own cost analysis techniques. Other criteria considered by all case companies were inventory cost, transportation cost, switching cost, delivery lead times, proximity to customer and availability of manufacturing technology. The research concludes that manufacturing reshoring is a holistic decision with criteria occurring at all categories in the theoretical framework. This contributes to the knowledge of reshoring decision-making and suggests that future research should investigate decision support tools for such decisions.
11:20 - 11:45 Back-Shoring vs. Near-Shoring: a Comparative Study
Fratocchi et al., Italy
After decades of manufacturing offshoring strategies, generally addressed to low cost countries, in the last few years companies have been increasingly revising their location strategies. In so doing, they often implement either backshoring (relocation to the home country) or near-shoring (relocation to the home region) alternatives. While the former strategy has gained increasing attention among scholars in recent years, studies on near-shoring are still scarce. Moreover, the academic literature rarely compares the two phenomena in order to understand why companies prefer to implement one instead of the other. This paper aims to shed new light on similarities and differences among back- and near-shoring strategies. In order to reach such an objective, we assume a contingency approach by focusing on a specific industry, the footwear sector, which has been significantly characterized by offshoring strategies. In order to reach the research aim, the comparison between back- and near-shoring strategies will be conducted focusing on three main issues: a) characteristics of the companies implementing the relocation strategy (firm’s size); b) motivations inducing companies to relocate; c) barriers to the implementation of the relocation decision. Given the explorative nature of the paper, the features of 41 back- and near-shoring decisions implemented by 25 Italian and Spanish companies operating in the footwear industry will be analysed. Preliminary findings show smaller companies are more likely to backshore instead of near-shore, probably because of the lower competences and resources they own. At the same time, availability of skilled contractors and/or availability of government aid in the home country induce them to back-shore instead of near-shore. Finally, the lack of skilled suppliers mainly characterizes the back-shoring alternative.
10:30 - 11:45
Paper session stream II
Paper session II:A1 - Resource-efficient production
Chair: Peter Almström, Chalmers
10:30 - 10:55 Extending the Use of Full-Scale Lean Production Simulators: Their Role as Innovation Testbeds
De Vin et al., KAU
This paper describes the use of a flexible full-scale simulation environment for Lean Production training and education called “KLF Karlstad Lean Factory®”. Instead of using the PDCA cycle as model for improvement cycles, the authors have developed a model that is more descriptive; it supports training transfer to the work environment in a more intuitive way. Recently, the authors have started to use the simulator as a testbed for innovative production solutions. Together with a company, the simulator is configured so as to emulate their envisaged future production solution. This participatory modelling & simulation process consists of three main stages: (i) creating a common view on aim and scope, (ii) configuration modelling, and (iii) simulations. After the simulations, participants tend to continue seeking improvements, which illustrates the effectiveness of the approach. Future work will include developing a model for measuring lean production maturity in SMEs.
10:55 - 11:20 Guide for Automation of Low Volume Production
Löfving et al., Träcentrum
There is a remaining need from both academia and practitioners, to gain further knowledge about the decision making process for automation of low volume production. This paper includes insights of drivers for automation, the development of a guide for low volume production and the outcome of using the guide. The research in this study is based on both empirical data and theoretical considerations. The empirical data was collected in five case studies and a questionnaire. This paper is part of a research project with the main objective to develop knowledge about how flexible automation may contribute to improvements in efficiency, ergonomics, quality and production economics in different industries with low volume production. One of the results in the project was a comprehensive guide, developed, refined and improved in an iterative collaborative process, where tools and parts of the guide were tested and verified by five manufacturing case companies. The paper describes briefly the development process of the guide and content. The requirements of the guide derived from literature, case companies, questionnaire as well as industrial experts. The resulting guide can be used in several ways, depending on the requirements of the application. The guide includes guiding principles, a decision model for the analysis of the company, choice of automation and facts about automation. In the end of the project, four companies had invested or decided to invest in different types of automation.
In a time of change focusing on the application of technology, there is a high risk of underestimating the compliance of internal needs and adaption to context. The research study employs a qualitative approach using the case study methodology. The source of data comes from five different manufacturing companies categorized as Small to Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). A multidisciplinary team performed semi-structured interviews and fieldwork at each site, along with regular online meetings with the partners. The study employs five dimensions of the information quality perspective to assess information utilized to support deviation handling and connects the information quality deficiencies to the digital tools’ impact. The empirical findings indicate the need for the companies to perform a requirement analysis of information needs before the adoption of digital systems or digital tools, to assess their current state in terms of data and information. The paper discusses the impact digital tools may have on deviation management in SMEs and under which circumstances digital tools could improve deviation management. Lastly, this paper intends to shed light on the utilization of digital technologies for disturbance handling on the production shop floor.
10:30 - 11:45
Paper session stream III
Paper session III:G2 - Advanced and optimized components, materials and manufacturing
Chair: Christina Windmark, LU
10:30 - 10:55 Study on Efficient Fused Deposition Modelling of Thermoplastic Polyurethane Inflatable Wall Features for Airtightness
Lihui Wang et al., KTH
The thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) material is an elastomer that can be used for inflatable products. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is a widely used additive manufacturing process for TPU material due to the capability of generating complex structures with low cost. However, TPU is soft and thus difficult to be extruded as continuously and uniformly as hard materials such as polylactide by FDM. Inappropriate extruder structure and speed settings can lead to filament buckling problem, resulting in poor material filling quality, long printing time and low printing success rate. This paper aims at improving the FDM printing efficiency of TPU inflatable products by adding lateral support to the filament and finding out the appropriate speed ranges for different wall features and thicknesses. Firstly, a filament guide sheet is designed as being inserted into the gap between the drive gears and the bottom frame of the gear chamber in order to prevent the soft TPU filament from buckling. Secondly, inflatable product wall features are classified into floors, roofs and sidewalls and experiment for finding the relationship between printing speed and airtightness is carried out. In order to verify the proposed solution, wall features are printed and the material fillings obtained under different printing speeds are compared by measuring the airtightness of the wall features. Results show that the proposed filament guide sheet mitigates filament buckling, and the speed range that meets the airtightness requirement can be found for various wall features and thicknesses. In summary, the sealing of the filament feeding channel between the drive gears and the nozzle, as well as the speed optimisation according to product features, are essential for the efficient printing of TPU inflatable products.
10:55 - 11:20 Evolution of The Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of cBN-based Cutting Tools with Silicides Compounds as Binder Phase
Slipchenko et al., Ukraine
Silicide based compounds are widely used for coatings due to their high melting temperature, oxidation resistance and moderate density. Employment of binders based on silicides of transitional metals can provide cBN-based cutting tools with higher chemical stability and better performance. The relationship between phase composition, microstructure and mechanical properties of novel polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PcBN) materials were investigated. Three series of PcBN samples were made by high pressure high temperature (HPHT) sintering. Silicides of chromium – CrSi2, vanadium – VSi2 and molybdenum MoSi2 were used as a binder phase in each case, while aluminum was introduced to the mixture as an oxygen getter. During HPHT sintering at temperatures above 1850 °C the formation of borides of binder phase were observed in cases with VSi2 and MoSi2. For system with CrSi2 binder, temperature of boride formation was found to be lower – 1600 °C. Materials with MoSi2 binder phase demonstrated the highest level of microhardness. Performance of materials were investigated in conditions of machining of stainless steel AISI 316L and Inconel 718.
10:30 - 11:45
Paper session stream IV
Paper session IV:F1 - Integrated product and production development
Chair: Ann-Louise Andersen, Denmark & Carin Rösiö, JTH
10:30 - 10:55 Product Platforms in Industrialized House Building – Information Modeling Method
Popovic et al., JTH
There is a demand on the current markets of industrialized house building for higher product design flexibility and customization. One of the success factors in addressing this challenge efficiently is the formalization and use of product platforms through information technology applications. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how product platforms and their use should be modeled to support the development of information technology applications. The aim of this paper is therefore, to increase the knowledge on information modeling of product platforms and their use in the industrialized house building design process. The available information modeling methods were identified and analyzed using literature review while considering the contextual criteria of industrialized house building. An information modelling method for product platforms and their use in the industrialized house building design process is proposed. The information modeling rationale is synthesized using the design platform modeling and the information delivery manual modeling. The former is a PLM-oriented while the latter is a BIMoriented information modeling method. The proposed information modeling method is composed of three parts: product platform information model, process maps and exchange requirement specification. Future work should aim for the validation of the proposed information modeling method by application on empirical data in a case study.
10:55 - 11:20 Framework for Digital Development in Industrialized Housebuilding
Yitmen et al., JTH
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is claimed to transform the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry, whereas current research has argued that diffusion of BIM use proceeds at a slower rate than the optimistic predictions. Despite that potential of BIM is higher in industrialized housebuilding, the trade express similar characteristics as traditional construction both in terms of BIM sue but also organization of assets. The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for digital development in industrialized timber housing. Data were gathered from eight industrialized housebuilding companies in a mixed approach with interviews, focus groups and a survey. The analysis presents the current use of BIM and digital tools and prioritized development areas within this domain. By adding a theoretical overview of current research for industrialized housebuilding with focus on platform strategies and digital development a framework is drawn. Problems with transfer in the interfaces between software were emphasized. Current research on developing a system for Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) in industrialized housebuilding indicate a path forward. A PLM system facilitates the development of digital developments such as digital twins and smart products, which possess the potentials to generate crucial feedback, which is crucial for the competitiveness and efficiency of industrialized housebuilding. Thus, for a trade with high levels of complexity, a move towards a fully functional PLM system might not only be desirable but decisive.
11:20 - 11:45 Expanding the Building System into a Product Platform for Improved Design and Manufacture – A Case Study in Industrialised House-building
Thajudeen et al., JTH
Industrialised house builders in Sweden have been challenged to meet the demand for housing solutions as the population has increased at a faster rate. As a result, the housing industry is currently faced with objectives to improve productivity and internal efficiency while also controlling the production cost of houses without compromising external efficiency. To remain competitive, many companies developed own building system (BS) based on fixed or partially fixed production systems with different prefabrication techniques. The challenges remain in the design phase and proper methods and tools are required to manage it. In many industries, the product platform approach has been used as a means to achieve both internal and external efficiency. However, little attention has been paid in relating the platform approach to building system support in the design phase of Industrialised house building (IHB). Thus, the main purpose of this paper is to explore the current state of the industrialised house building system and outline design support solutions for the building system from a product platform approach. Qualitative research was conducted by linking a single case company working with post and beam building system in combination with a literature review. Empirical data were gathered from five semi-structured interviews and two workshop sections. A cause-effect analysis has been conducted to realize the potential causes of challenges in the design process. The result illustrates a methodology with principle solutions that can be used as design support for the case company as a path forward and improve further from a product platform perspective.
11:45 - 13:00
13:00 - 14:40
Workshop: Experiences from the Production 2030 - doctoral course in International Production
Moderator: Bengt-Göran Rosén, Halmstad University
13:00 - 14:40
Paper session stream I
Special session S4 - Management of manufacturing digitalisation
Chair: Anna Öhrwall Rönnbäck, LTU & Monica Bellgran, KTH
13:00 - 13:25 Challenges with Coordination of Technology Development and Transfer of Industry 4.0 Technologies in IMNs
Badasjane et al., MDH
Within an international manufacturing network (IMN), one particular factory, called the lead factory is responsible for development of new products, processes and technologies as well as transferring these to the subsidiaries within the IMN. These responsibilities require coordination, which is found difficult even in the best-performing companies due to its complexity. When the responsibility for development of Industry 4.0 technologies are included such as cyber-physical systems and Internet of Things the complexity increases further. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to identify what are the challenges with coordination of technology development and transfer of Industry 4.0 technologies in IMNs. Accordingly, a realtime embedded case study was carried out with six manufacturing companies. One major finding is that development of Industry 4.0 technologies does not fit the current way of organizing technology development at lead factories. Another finding is that several of the identified challenges connected to technology development can be derived from a lack of a long-term strategy ensuring competence for future needs.
13:25 - 13:50 Maturity Framework Enabling Organizational Digital Readiness
Machado et al., Chalmers
Digitalization and the use of advanced technologies for more flexible and resource efficient production processes are changing the industrial competitive environment. However, new technologies are not seldom implemented without the whole organization being ready to fully utilize its benefits. This readiness can be expressed as organizational digital maturity. Previous studies identified that the level of digitalization is increasing, but, in many cases, due to lack of foundation, it is not aligned with the business strategy and/or supported by the organizational and technological infrastructures. There is a gap in existing models to provide practical starting-up steps to support the organizational digital readiness. A conceptual readiness framework for organizational digital readiness was tested through the analysis and reflection of four cases implemented by a Swedish manufacturing company. Findings point out that it is important to create a proper organizational foundation, a readiness, to ensure a company to evolve in digital maturity. That can be developed based on three main stages of change management practices. The tool can be used to identify the organizational readiness and thereby the gaps and thresholds necessary to overcome. This will enable companies to utilize the technology level necessary to increase cost and resource efficiency, and hence competitiveness. In addition, dimensions and a roadmap for organizational, digital and smart readiness is presented.
13:00 - 14:40
Paper session stream II
Paper session II:A2 - Resource-efficient production
Chair: Mats Björkman, LiU
13:00 - 13:25 How to Deal with Differing Views of Resource Efficiency when Carrying Out Digitalization Projects
Grahn et al., RISE
Having project goals that are shared among project members are preconditions for resource efficient as well effective projects and operations. However, specifying and communicating project goals require an ability to identify goals that are indeed commonly shared. Rapid technological developments may require digitalization projects that lead to large portions of existing company staff being redundant, making it possible to assume that the quest of finding a commonly shared view of what is ‘resource-efficient’ will be increasingly challenging. Development of methods to specify project goals that are incentivizing for all project members and staff can hence be assumed to be important. One step in developing improved specification methods is to ask how the process to specify desired value from digitalization projects handles possible disagreements of what is ‘desired value’. The purpose of this study was to answer this question. We analyzed several digitalization projects, and how specifications of desired project results impacted project outcomes. We found that potential disagreements regarding desirable project outcomes generally are avoided by avoiding specification of what a desirable resource efficiency outcome is, and how actual project outcomes should be measured. However, we also found that this practice also led to unsatisfying project outcomes regarding resource-efficiency improvements, and that improved methods to specify desired value from digitalization projects should be developed. Our findings support earlier findings that the general failure rate of digitalization projects is high, often due to insufficient specification of desired projects outcomes before the projects are initiated. Our findings contribute to the understanding that despite this, there are also perceived benefits of spending limited resources on specification of desired outcomes. If attempts to improve the success rate of digitalization projects by improving specifications of desired project outcomes is to succeed, these perceived benefits must be considered.
13:25 - 13:50 The Evolvement of a Corporate Lean Production System
Larsson et al., KTH
The purpose of the research outlined in this paper is to explore the question of how the Lean concept evolves at a strategic management level in an international manufacturing company. The firm has set out to review its strategy and management system in a series of workshops to meet upcoming challenges in a business environment under transformation. Full access to the ongoing strategic work and related documents facilitates the execution of this longitudinal case study that started in March 2019. The empirical findings demonstrate concrete examples from the process of developing a management system that has its foundation in Lean production. One model comprising three types of co-existing conceptual management systems is presented, illustrating a scenario of how to handle the expected increasing industrial complexity. An opportunity to learn and further develop from the three types of management systems arise. The data further displays examples of the presence of co-existing corporate versions of the management system as a possible reaction to the different contexts and challenges at hand. The research suggests and further elaborates on the phenomenon of co-existing management systems and management systems development based on Lean.
13:50 - 14:15 Bottom-Up Lean Practice Deployment in a Global Setting: A Case Study from the Pharmaceutical Industry
Linderson et al., KTH
In view of major social changes, such as the growing climate crisis, increased external expectations on the production sector demand an industrial transformation. Since transformations call for innovation, new lean practices will emerge locally at sites in production networks to cope with new challenges. But, how can new local lean practices be deployed for utilization by other parts of the company? Global production companies strive for broad over-all improvements within the network. This is often approached through a top-down deployment of a global lean framework, using various mechanisms. Lean standard development is a central mechanism for transferring best practices and lean knowledge within a corporate group. Anchored to well-established theories, such as innovation diffusion and plant network theory, prior lean transfer studies often take a cascading top-down perspective. In contrast, this study aims to explore lean practice diffusion through a bottom-up perspective. It explores the process of deploying new local lean practices to the corporate network. The empirical findings are based on a single case study at the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca. The findings indicate that the bottom-up deployment process can be explained by four phases, ‘Piloting’, ‘Branding’, ‘Codifying Knowledge’ and ‘Making a Product’ that varies in degree of practice adaptation. The lean practice incorporation to a global lean framework is discussed around three conceptual deployment approaches called, ‘template’, ‘standard’ and ‘product’ deployment. The empirical insight contributes to the body of global lean literature by providing a more dynamic view of global lean frameworks, of which development depends on the underlying processes such as bottom-up practice incorporation. It also provides practitioners in global lean settings with valuable insight and a possibility to review internal global-local deployment processes within a corporate group to increase intra-organizational learning.
14:15 - 14:40 Misconceptions Within The Use Of Overall Equipment Effectiveness – A Theoretical Discussion On Industrial Examples
Bengtsson et al., MDH
Overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) is a common performance measure used in manufacturing industry to identify and prioritize losses to perform improvement work on in order to increase the effectiveness of equipment. There exist challenges though, both in implementing OEE as well as in running an OEEprogram. Some of these challenges include lack of training and awareness, lack of focus, risk of misunderstanding the measure etc. This paper will deal with some of the possible misconceptions within the use of OEE that might arise during implementation or in continuously running an OEE-program. Some of the topics of misconceptions that will be discussed include: no financial issues are taken into consideration; that the factors of availability; performance and quality are not weighted; the connection to productivity is not always clear; the importance of cross-functionality of the measurement and work method; the issue of comparison of OEE results; and last but not least the view on and hunt for world class levels. The paper will discuss these (and some additional ones) theoretically and suggest some counter-actions so that they may be avoided.
13:00 - 14:40
Paper session stream III
Paper session III:H - Digitalization for smart products and services
Chair: Dan Högberg, HiS
13:00 - 13:25 Blockchain Application in Manufacturing Industry - Bibliometric and Systemic Analysis
Lodi et al., Brazil
Blockchain technology provides secure, reliable and transparent solutions to different challenges arising from the growing need for connectivity presented nowadays. Recent developments in industrial processes sets fertile ground for the application of this technology. Aiming to understand the state of the art of blockchain technology application in the manufacturing industry, this study presents an investigation of relevant publications on the subject, including also bibliometric and systemic analyzes. 30 articles of major relevance were selected from a portfolio of 1432 publications, presented between 2015 and 2019. Thus, it was possible to identify research trends and opportunities.
13:25 - 13:50 Indoor Localization of Quadcopters in Industrial Environment
Troll et al., KTH
The research work in this paper was carried out to reach advanced positioning capabilities of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for indoor applications. The paper includes the design of a quadcopter and the implementation of a control system with the capability to position the quadcopter indoor using onboard visual pose estimation system, without the help of GPS. The project also covered the design and implementation of quadcopter hardware and the control software. The developed hardware enables the quadcopter to raise at least 0.5kg additional payload. The system was developed on a Raspberry single-board computer in combination with a PixHawk flight controller. OpenCV library was used to implement the necessary computer vision. The Open-source software-based solution was developed in the Robotic Operating System (ROS) environment, which performs sensor reading and communication with the flight controller while recording data about its operation and transmits those to the user interface. For the vision-based position estimation, pre-positioned printed markers were used. The markers were generated by ArUco coding, which exactly defines the current position and orientation of the quadcopter, with the help of computer vision. The resulting data was processed in the ROS environment. LiDAR with Hector SLAM algorithm was used to map the objects around the quadcopter. The project also deals with the necessary camera calibration. The fusion of signals from the camera and from the IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) was achieved by using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The evaluation of the completed positioning system was performed with an OptiTrack optical-based external multi-camera measurement system. The introduced evaluation method has enough precision to be used to investigate the enhancement of positioning performance of quadcopters, as well as fine-tuning the parameters of the used controller and filtering approach. The payload capacity allows autonomous material handling indoors. Based on the experiments, the system has an accurate positioning system to be suitable for industrial application.
13:50 - 14:15 Studies on surface roughness in stable and unstable end-milling
Eynian et al., HV
Surface roughness is an important aspect of a machined piece and greatly influences its performance. This paper presents the surface roughness of end-milled aluminium plates in stable and unstable machining conditions at various spindle speed and depth of cuts machined with cylindrical end-mills. The surface roughness is measured using high-resolution surface replicas with a white light interferometry (WLI) microscope. The measurements of the end-milled floors show that the surface roughness as long as the cutting is performed in stable conditions is insensitive to the depth of cut or spindle speed. In contrast, within chattering conditions, which appear according to stability lobes, surface roughness values increase almost 100%. While at the valleys of the stability lobe diagram, there is a gradual increase in roughness, at the peaks of the stability lobe, the transition from the stable to unstable condition occurs with a sudden increase of the roughness values. In the study of down-milled walls, while the roughness increases with the depth of cut within both the stable and the chattering regions, the transition from the stable to chattering condition can lead to a much larger increase in the surface roughness. These results could be used for strategic selection of operation considering the needs of robustness and possible variation of dynamic parameters that can affect the position of the cutting conditions within the stability lobe diagrams.
14:15 - 14:40 Developing a Framework for Scoping Digital Twins in the Process Manufacturing Industry
Perno et al., Denmark
The process of scoping Digital Twin projects can prove to be daunting for process manufacturing companies, given the novelty of the concept and the broad range of technologies upon which it is built. The current literature lacks research on the process of scoping Digital Twins in a process manufacturing context. The present paper addresses this gap by introducing a framework for scoping Digital Twins in the process manufacturing industry. The framework is based on the existing literature and on the experience gained at an international process manufacturing company. The proposed framework is designed to address the key challenges that companies in the process manufacturing industry need to face when scoping Digital Twin projects. Therefore, the framework is structured into four points: (1) Identification of key stakeholders and their requirements, (2) Building blocks definition, (3) Selection of asset to twin, and (4) Use cases development. By addressing these points, the time and resources required to develop a Digital Twin can be significantly reduced.
13:00 - 14:40
Paper session stream IV
Paper session IV:F2 - Integrated product and production development
Chair: Magnus Wiktorsson, KTH
13:00 - 13:25 Method to Support Decision Making Process Considering Risk Factors
Bastchen et al., Brazil
The current scenario of the national and international market is marked by increasingly fierce competition and to ensure the survival of organizations, requires companies to develop new products cannot fail regarding cost, quality and time during a project. For this, the decisions that are made during the engineering changes of a product need to be assertive, taking into account factors of risk and concurrent engineering. The present work aimed to develop a new method to support the decision-taking process among multiple alternatives based on the evaluation of risk factors in the context of an engineering change. For this development, the Design Science Research was used as a methodological framework. The demonstration and evaluation steps were performed in the engineering environment of an automotive partner company. The solution developed was very pertinent to assist the decision-taking process, being able to provide more information and facilitate the evaluation of risk factors in the initial phases of the project. Also, it has been pointed out that, often, new artifacts applications need to be accompanied by a change in the mindset of organizations so that they can be effectively implemented.
13:25 - 13:50 Method for Identifying Representative Failures in Modular Products Through Field Application Data Analysis
Cerquiera et al., Brazil
Increasingly, manufacturing companies are focusing their efforts on exploring new markets. This new reality makes them strive for more efficient ways to offer their products at a lower cost and without losing their customization. As a result, the compromise between volume and customization (i.e. mass customization) is necessary and to support these product platforms have become a standard practice in the industry, especially the automotive one. However, another challenge arises with the use of platforms: the lack of an efficient way to develop product platforms that will bring a high level of customer satisfaction. The present work aims to develop a method capable of assisting global project groups for identifying representative failures in modules of product platforms and to set up product variations. It is intended to solve the problem of inefficient platform configuration for different markets, taking into account the specific application characteristics of each one. The methodological procedure is based on the Design Science Research (DSR) framework, according to which the work is carried out in six steps. The demonstration and evaluation steps of the solution were performed in the context of an automotive partner industry. The results show that is possible to use the method as a way to improve product platform configuration. The main contribution comes from the fact that the method performs a data analysis based on actual usage information under different product application conditions.
13:50 - 14:15 Towards Improving Process Control in Sheet Metal Forming: a Hybrid Data- and Model-Based Approach
Tatipala et al., BTH
Ability to predict and control involved parameters and hence the outcome of sheet metal forming processes demand holistic knowledge of the product/-process parameter influences and their contribution in shaping the output product quality. Recent improvements in the ability to harvest inline production data and the capability to understand complex process behaviour through computer simulations opens up the possibility for new monitoring and control approaches for improving production process performance and output product quality. Current work presents a framework for monitoring and control of sheet metal forming processes which incorporates a hybrid data‐and model‐based approach. An initial attempt to evaluate the proposed frameworks’ ability to support output product quality and process performance enhancements is made by implementing the proposed approach via an in-house built wire-bending machine prototype. Initial experiments conducted using the built prototype indicate that the proposed framework has the potential to support such enhancements and further work is needed to validate the overall framework.
14:40 - 15:10
15:10 - 16:05
Paper session stream I
Special session S5 - Additive manufacturing in the production system
Chair: Roland Stolt, JTH
15:10 - 15:35 Lead-Time Effect Comparison of Additive Manufacturing with Conventional Alternatives
Kurdve et al., RISE
This single case study used value stream mapping as input data to analyse alternatives for production of quenching tools in an on-site tool department of an automotive manufacturer. The existing manufacturing organised as a functional workshop was compared to the alternatives, adding an additive manufacturing cell or a conventional automated cell, with regards to lead-time and needed process changes. The results indicate that lead-time savings should not be the only reason for considering additive manufacturing. When it is beneficial for design and product functionality improvements, however, lead time improvements may give a contribution to the business case.
15:35 - 16:05 Manufacturing of High Pressure Die Casting Die Inserts using SLM
Stolt et al., JTH
Dies for high pressure die casting are normally manufactured by machining of slabs of tool steel to the required dimensions. This manufacturing requires several steps such as rough machining, heat-treatment, EDM (electro discharge machining) and polishing. With the AM (additive manufacturing) method SLM (Selective Laser Melting) it has become possible to print the dies fully or in part. Several advantages are expected, such as a better thermal distribution in the die in service and thereby extended die life and better component quality. This is due to the possibility of making the cooling channels conformal. There are also expectations of reduced time and cost in the manufacturing process due to fewer manufacturing steps and better material utilisation. Hopes are to print a net shape or near net shape that can be used directly as a die component. In this paper it is investigated to what extent this can be fulfilled by printing two die inserts to be used for casting fatigue test samples of aluminium. They were printed on a 3D Systems ProX DMP 300 in maraging steel powder. The result is that it is possible to obtain a sufficiently smooth surface die surface. However, the current design with an SLM insert fitted in a machined die makes extensive post printing manufacturing necessary.
15:10 - 16:05
Paper session stream II
Paper session II:A3 - Resource-efficient production
Chair: Gary Linneusson, JTH
15:10 - 15:35 An exploratory study on integrating sustainability aspects during the acquisition of production equipment
Islam et al., KTH
Production equipment such as machines have crucial impact on the overall performance of production operations in manufacturing industries, since there is a strong correlation between the machines and working conditions and performance on the shop floor. Well designed production equipment has the potential to achieve economic gain by reducing the disturbances during the operational phase, to fulfill environmental commitment by reducing emissions and resources consumption and utility, and to increase employee satisfaction ensuring safety and good ergonomics. Therefore, when acquiring production equipment it is important to consider different sustainability aspects relevant to its usage during the operational phase. This study aims at exploring the critical features of production equipment to facilitate different practices in the context of sustainable production operational system, and how manufacturing companies are considering sustainability aspects when acquiring production equipment. The data has been collected based on a literature study, interviews conducted in different manufacturing companies located in Sweden, attending group discussion sessions, and reviewing machines´ technical regulation guidelines. Some of the critical features identified are error proofing, setup time, one-piece flow, automatic generation of required data, reduction of energy and resource consumption, together with worker's health and safety, etc. The data indicates that companies specify different features of machines based on the requirements of operational performance and these features are aligned with different lean techniques, green practice, and safety issues. However, during acquisition process of production equipment the environmental issues are still not prioritized yet compared to lean and safety aspects. Budget constraint, insufficient information of the whole life cycle costing and lack of innovation from the equipment suppliers´ side are exampled of major barriers for acquiring more environment-friendly production equipment.
15:35 - 16:05 Reduction of Product Portfolio Complexity Based on Process Analysis
Staskiewicz et al., Denmark
The increased demand for product variety has implied that many manufacturing companies are struggling with managing product complexity. This article suggests a framework for combined modeling of product variants and the process flow in production and assembly for customized products. The aim of the framework is to create a visual model that illustrates the product variety relative to the process flow and provides transparency of product variety in the different process steps. Literature has suggested various methods and techniques. These provide means for reducing complexity based on analysis of the end product, but do not pay much attention to understanding where in the production and assembly processes, this variance occurs. The suggested models form a basis for analyzing and reducing product complexity based on a visual model of the product variety in each process step. The models gave rise to a reduction of the SKUs with 33% without losing product variety offered to the end customer. The initial test of the framework and models in the case company showed that the models can provide new insight into the product variety, which forms a solid basis for making decisions on reducing product portfolio variety and adjusting the order decoupling point.
15:10 - 16:05
Paper session stream III
Paper session III:E2 - Circular production systems and maintenance
Chair: Glenn Johansson, LU
15:10 - 15:35 How an OEM can Become Circular with Remanufacturing: the Case of Robotic Lawn Mowers
Kurilova-Palisaitiene et al., LiU
The consumption of resources is at an alarmingly high level, and there is a high need for resource-efficient alternatives to manufacturing. Remanufacturing is one way to reduce the use of both materials and energy, while still providing products with a like-new condition. This paper aims to define critical areas to assess when applying remanufacturing to original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The research was conducted by interweaving remanufacturing’s role in a circular economy (CE) with a single case study at a robotic lawn mower OEM. The case study was split into three parts that separately investigated customer demand, product design and economic sustainability, respectively, all in the area of remanufacturing. This paper addressed the research gap in OEM strategy towards a CE with remanufacturing, defining five critical areas to assess when applying remanufacturing to OEMs: customer, product, sustainability (economic, environmental and social), business model, and production system. The findings of the paper could be useful for many OEMs willing to shift to a CE with remanufacturing.
15:35 - 16:05 Automation Potential in the Remanufacturing of Electric and Electronic Equipment (EEE)
Sundin et al., LiU
Remanufacturing is the industrial process of returning used products (cores) to a like-new or better condition. During this industrial process, the cores go through several process steps, e.g., inspection, disassembly, cleaning, reprocess (repairs), storage, reassembly and final testing. Manufacturing companies also see remanufacturing as a way to become more circular and sustainable in economic, environmental and social terms. Technological advancements within the robot industry have increased the possibilities for using more automation within the remanufacturing industry, while recently, the remanufacturing of electric and electronic equipment (EEE) has grown around the world. This paper aims to identify the automation potentials of the remanufacturing of EEE. A multiple case study at four EEE remanufacturing companies was conducted to meet this aim. The case study, along with previous research, shows examples of EEE remanufacturing steps that are mainly performed manually. The results from this research show the possible automation potential for the process steps of cleaning, disassembly and reassembly at the four remanufacturing case companies.
15:10 - 16:05
Paper session stream IV
Paper session IV:F3 - Integrated product and production development
Chair: Leo De Vin, KaU
15:10 - 15:35 Challenges in the Fuzzy Front End of the Production Development Process
Trolle et al., JTH
As the demand for customized products increases, manufacturing industries are forced to adapt to rapid changing requirements in product demand by continuously developing new innovative and changeable production systems. In the early phases of production development, there are uncertainty aspects that needs to be managed until freeze of product design and development of a suitable production system. This front end is commonly considered as fuzzy since there is a lack of a structured production development process that supports the uncertain and iterative work that is required to develop feasible production systems in early phases. By identifying these challenges in the fuzzy front end of production development it is possible to inhibit future disturbances in the rest of the process and to increase future production system performance. In the literature, challenges in the latter part of the production development process has been thoroughly examined. However, few empirical investigations have explored the fuzzy front end in production development. The purpose of this study is to investigate challenges in the fuzzy front end of the production development process, focusing on new or comprehensive production system changes. To study these challenges, a multiple case study with 4 cases has been conducted. The empirical investigation consists of 5 semi-structured interviews and 5 participant observations. The findings show multiple challenges closely connected to project pre-conditions and organization structure related factors. Various project uncertainties in this early phase entails challenges to determine valid project objectives, scope and KPIs. Moreover, estimating the right amount of time and resources needed. Complex organization structures may have a significant influence on the way of working resulting in slowness in decision making. Furthermore, various communication challenges are identified which are mainly connected with the incapacity of including all stakeholders early in the development process.
15:35 - 16:05 Hardware Start-ups in the Scale-up Process of Production – a Mapping of Challenges
Sefton et al., KTH
The paper sets out to increase the understanding of how hardware startups scale-up their production, and elaborates further on the challenges they are facing in this phase, often called “the valley of death”. The research design is based on a qualitative approach and data collection through deep-interviews of 14 hardware start-ups and 7 production experts with extensive experience of production scale-up. A theoretical review adds to the understanding of the relatively immature field and supports the data analysis. The study presented in the paper is part of an innovation project called “Production Angels” which is a new concept developed for the purpose of supporting Swedish hardware scale-ups to overcome the valley of death, and to produce their new product in Sweden instead of outside the country which is often the case. Many hardware start-ups do not survive this phase of the innovation process, ending up in selling the product idea or even company. The results of the data collection elaborates on a number of challenges the start-ups meet in the production scale-up phase, here categorized into seven areas; financing, market analysis & feasibility study, production competence & team building, prototype development & manufacturing, production process understanding, suppliers & manufacturers, and support from the innovation system.
16:05 - 16:30
Best paper award and handover to SPS2022
Edge - Our Journey Toward Perfect Production
- Speaker: Anders Wiberg, Director Manufacturing Edge Factory
We are constantly under the pressure to maximize operational performance and making sure to strive towards perfection. To stay relevant in the market competition we need to increase uptime, stay true to our quality and apply the art of automation in an effective way. In this session we will take you through how an idea transformed into a high-end manufacturing plant and how we as a manufacturing company will face tomorrow challenges in the name of Industry 4.0 and digitalization. Changes happens in a rapidly fast way and we are here to bring ideas into solutions – We are a creative hub for innovation and passionate minds. Together, we are on a mission. To shape greater experiences than ever.
Sandvik Coromant Gimo
Factory of the future
- Speaker: Claes Nord, Senior Visitor Experience Specialist, AB Sandvik Coromant
The Sandvik Coromant Gimo tool production plant in Sweden has been recognized by the World Economic Forum as an advanced Industry 4.0 facility.
The Sandvik Coromant tool production plant at Gimo, north of Stockholm, is a highly-automated facility that fully embraces the many benefits of digitally-connected manufacturing. This was recently acknowledged by the World Economic Forum which announced Gimo as one of its global “lighthouse” sites. Each lighthouse is selected from a survey of over 1,000 manufacturing units based on their success in adopting digital technologies and demonstrating tangible benefits.
According to the World Economic Forum, the Gimo facility has created a digital thread through its production processes that has significantly raised productivity. One example is its ‘touchless changeover’ which allows design patterns to be changed automatically, even during unmanned shifts. Such best-in-class advances means Gimo will now become part of the global lighthouse network, opening its doors and sharing knowledge with other manufacturing businesses.
Sandvik Coromant is the world’s leading supplier of tools, tooling solutions and know-how for the metalworking industry. With extensive investments in research and development, we create unique innovations and set new productivity standards together with our customers. These include the world's major automotive, aerospace and energy industries. As a market leading supplier of tools, tooling solutions and know-how for the metalworking industry, Sandvik Coromant employs almost 8 000 brilliant minds spread across both geographical and cultural borders. Development is in our DNA and we’re proud to create unique innovations and set new productivity standards in close collaboration with our customers. We are also aiming ambitiously to reduce our environmental footprint and drive the shift towards a more sustainable world. Quite simply, shaping the future together!
Trends of productivity growth and the role of manufacturing
- Speaker: Lena Hagman, Senior economist
Teknikföretagen will present overall perspectives on the long-term trends of total factor productivity growth in Sweden and abroad, point out general obstacles observed in the last decade, but also possibilities for productivity to be raised against headwinds. The Manufacturing industry in the region of Jönköping creates more than half of the region’s total value added. The demand for its manufactured products creates almost 1/3 of all jobs in the region. On top of that, the tax income and transfers derived from manufacturing make room for public expenditures and creation of jobs within welfare services in the region. In order for this bloodstream to keep pumping around the heart of the region’s manufacturing industry, the conditions for improving its productivity growth is vital.
During the conference there will be workshops on different topics.
Workshop on collaborative research: Best practice in co-production of education and research
- Moderators: Malin Löfving, Träcentrum and Jenny Bäckstrand, School of Engineering, Jönköping University
During the workshop, the structured way that JTH work with engagement with industry will be presented, based om the 7 themes and 30 propositions regarding collaboration that have been formulated (found on https://ju.se/en/about-us/school-of-engineering/collaborate-with-us/collaborate-with-the-school-of-engineering.html). The participants will be invited to discuss on the themes of;
- Strategic partnerships
- Collaboration arenas
- Industry placement/internship for engineers
- Life-long learning – courses for industry
- Matchmaking between company needs and university offerings
We hope that the participants will share their experiences during and be inspired to collaborate in research and education.
Workshop on education: Lifelong learning and developing shared modular education between Academia and Industry - the Civilingenjör 4.0 pilot project
- Moderator: Bengt-Göran Rosén, Professor, Halmstad University
During the workshop visions and status on education in collaboration and "Life-long learning" as a concept will be discussed. The discussion starts off from a concept developed based on small (1-3 credits) education modules from the ongoing national project Civilingenjör 4.0. The project is exploring joint academia-academia- and academia to industry education as one (of many) enablers of the life-long learning concept. Invited speakers from industry and academia will initiate the discussion. In the end of the session challenges identified for the co-operation will be penetrated by the aid of the audience and a plenary panel.
Workshop on education: Experiences from the production2030-doctoral course in international production – this year based on a field trip to USA and Silicon Valley, is presented and discussed
- Moderator: Bengt-Göran Rosén, Professor, Halmstad University
The workshop is presented by participants from the Production 2030 Graduate School course International production who will share their experiences from study visits both at Swedish companies and in California to discuss aspects of internationally based production. A discussion will be initiated around the conclusions from the course and ideas and suggestions of topics and layout for coming versions of the course will be welcomed from the audience.
Workshop on research: Building knowledge together in product and production development research
- Moderators: Anna Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Professor, Luleå University of Technology (project manager, Kunskapsförmedlingen), Tero Stjernstoft, Vinnova (chairman of Kunskapsförmedlingen), Boel Wadman, Produktionskluster (The Swedish Manufacturing R&D Clusters), Cecilia Warrol, Produktion2030, and Sabina Rebeggiano, Produktion2030 Graduate School
All researchers in Sweden in the fields of Product Development and Production Development are invited to present their research profiles at the web portal "Kunskapsförmedlingen" – the knowledge dissemination channel. It is jointly run by the funding bodies (Vinnova, SSF, KK Foundation and Tillväxtverket), the Association of Swedish Engineering Industries (Teknikföretagen) and scholars. In total, Kunskapsförmedlingen involves a network of several hundred researchers and their research projects. Over the years, Kunskapsförmedlingen has been used primarily as a shopwindow, with links to various resources for dissemination. Besides announcing news, events and calls, recently also PhD courses were added. Please join us in a workshop where the aim is to further develop our common channel for announcing product development and production development research dissemination activities. As on outcome, we hope that our research will be even more accessible and easier to find for the external website visitor.